Breaststroke is the slowest and oldest of all the four swimming strokes. It is the most inefficient stroke of all and requires little energy to keep moving. Propulsion from the arms and legs is one consecutive action that takes place under the water. Breaststroke kick is essential for the motion and propulsion of the whole stroke.
The main reason the stroke being slow and inefficient is mainly due to the large frontal resistance area created as the heels draw up towards the seat. The breathing technique itself inclines the body which in turn increases the resistance.
Swimming instructors will teach breaststroke first usually during adult swimming lessons followed by freestyle swimming. The head and face will clear the water; these will give the swimmer a more excellent perception of their whereabouts and their buoyancy.
There are many variations in overall techniques for breaststroke swimming. People swim breaststroke mainly for survival skills ranging from slow recreational swim to high competitive styles.
The body should be near the surface streamlined with an inclination from the head to the feet so that the leg kick recovery takes place under the water.
You should always keep your head movement to a minimum with shoulders remaining level throughout the whole stroke.
As the propulsive phase of one part takes place, the opposite end of the body remains streamlined.
Leg action is the one in charge of moving the body forward. The essential teaching aspect of breaststroke legs is that the leg action is a sequence of actions that come together to make one sweeping leg kicking action. There are two kinds of kicking actions for breaststroke, mainly the whip kick and the wedge kick.
There are ongoing debates on each of these types of kicks and which are helping us perform better in water. So as a teacher, you should well verse in both types of kicks. The leg action provides the largest propulsion in the stroke, and students will favor a wedge kick or a whip kick depending on which comes more natural to them.
Over 80 percent of the propulsion will come from the leg kick. The leg kicking action as a whole should be simultaneous and flowing action.
The arms and hands pull around and downwards to enable our head to come out of the water surface to breathe. Elbows must be tucked in; this will help our body to come out naturally. After breathing, hands will go back to a forward stretch position and prepare for gliding.
Many changes have been made throughout the years to breaststroke. The amount of propulsion generated from the arm pull has developed over the years, and it has thus become more competitive.
Of the four competitive strokes, the arm action of breaststroke provides the smallest propulsions.
We can conclude the timing of the breaststroke in four words: pulling, breathing, kicking, and gliding or kick, glide, pull, breathe. You have to maintain a streamlined body position sequence and these are essential to maximize the propulsive phases of the stroke.
When you are doing pull of your arms at the propulsive phase, the legs will be streamlined. When you are doing your kicking of the legs at the propulsive phase, the arms will be streamlined. Full body extensions are essential before the start of each stroke.